Monday, October 31, 2005

English Only in the EFL Classroom: Worth the Hassle?


In considering the use of L1 (the learners mother tongue) in ELT (English Language Teaching) on the part of the teacher, one of the first assumptions is that the teacher has a sufficient command of the students L1 to be of value in the first place. Another assumption which may well impact this scenario is that all the learners in a class or group have the same L1. While these assumptions may often be the case in numerous EFL (English as a Foreign Language) teaching / learning settings, many times they are not. In the case of multi-cultural classes (i.e., in the USA, UK, Australia, Canada, India, etc.) where the learners have different L1s, or when the teacher does not have a working knowledge of the learners L1, a frequent occurrence in Asia, Africa and eastern Europe, applied L1 use in the EFL classroom is severely limited or may be rendered virtually impossible.

Use of L1 in the Classroom

In my case, I'll talk about those instances where I do in fact use the learners L1 in my EFL classes. I have acquired a working knowledge of Spanish and all my university and independent students have Spanish as their L1. Although I'm against any substantial use of L1 in ESOL (the teaching of English to Speakers of Other Languages) classes, there are situations where its use is quite valuable. In addition, at early levels a ratio of about 5 per cent native language to about 95 per cent target language may be more profitable than the use of "English only". (Atkinson, 1987) On the first day of class with a new group, I explain to the learners that they are allowed to ask "How do you say ______ , in Spanish?" where the Spanish (L1) word or phrase is filled in the blank. This allows the students to get key vocabulary in their written or spoken expression while limiting their use of L1 in class.

When learners are stumped for abstract lexis, a word or phrase which cannot be easily elicited during the course of a lesson, I'll simply "give" them the word in Spanish to aid in continuing with the smooth flow of the lesson and not get "bogged down" in trying to come up with the elusive lexis by other means. When a student gives me production of incomprehensible language, i.e., I (nor the other learners) cannot decipher what the student is trying to say in English, I'll say "Tell me that in Spanish." Armed with this new understanding I (or one of the other learners) can then provide that learner with corrected, comprehensible forms which otherwise might elude both (or even all) of us.

During a written exam, I’ll also "give" the learners a word or phrase writing it on the board in English and / or Spanish to avoid extensive disruption of the test-taking process. Since I do not prepare the exams, new lexis can creep into readings, instructions or exercises. When a learner, and as additional learners, ask for meaning or explanation of the word(s), I'll simply point to the lexis on the board without speaking.

When playing communicative, TPR (Asher, 1966 and passim) or "fast-paced" vocabulary games such as a learner favorite called "STOP", I'll again provide a translation of new lexis to help develop the learners vocabulary. These could be lexis of places, names in English / Spanish, foods, animals or some verbs or use of the L1 in various code-switching activities. (Clandfield - Foord, 2003) This happens especially frequently when I need to explain why a particular word is incorrect or cannot be used.

L1 Use with LEP Learners

One additional instance when I switch to Spanish is when I must talk to LEP (Limited English Proficiency) learners about important administrative matters or procedures for which they do not have the necessary depth of vocabulary to understand. The importance of the material and their need to understand it outweigh the adherence of sticking to "English only" which is my "standard operating procedure" in the classroom. This is especially true in my case with groups of learners with less than about 250 contact hours of English which is equivalent to third semester or less. Note: Atkinson (1987 and passim) states 150 hours or less (second semester) for this stage although I have found it often extends into an additional semester.

On occasion, students will bring in a song or lyrics, usually Rock or Pop music, and ask the meaning of a word, phrase, expression or sometimes even the title. In providing the requested explanation (when I can), I use comparisons and / or translations into Spanish as often as is necessary. The same may occur with dialogue from popular films, movies and videos produced for native speakers of English. In rare instances, a cassette recording of a radio broadcast or book-on-tape has made its way into my classroom for the same reasons.

A final common instance in my use of L1 in the classroom is with learners in "repeat" or "remedial" classes of LEP learners. Since these learners have already demonstrated that the "traditional" teaching methods provided for in their course books is insufficient in teaching them the material. All these learners have failed the course at this level at least once, some twice or more. I subsequently use a series of alternative methodologies including translation and other types of input / feedback in the learners L1 to aid in the learning - acquisition process. These methods have, in fact, proved to be very successful. One reason may be that use of specially-targeted methodologies and altered classroom conditions help to lower the learners Affective Filters (Krashen - Terrell, 1983) and direct the new material and lexis to them in ways more compatible with their individual Multiple Intelligences and preferred learning styles (Gardner, 1983).


In conclusion I have stated that my use of L1 in the EFL classroom is minimal and should not exceed a ratio of more than 5% of the L1 to 95% of the target language. Key EFL classroom situations in which L1 can be utilized include:

· requesting new lexis
· explaining abstract terms
· to aid in the generation of comprehensible input / production
· during exams and other high-stress situations
· to maintain the flow of dynamic activities
· to explain idioms and expressions in songs, movies and videos
· giving information / instructions to LEP learners
· in adapting materials to the special needs of the learners

While the use of the learners L1 should be strictly controlled, it is plausible to make accurate use of it in activities to promote learning and acquisition. Ongoing language acquisition research and in-class practice supports that use of L1 should not be prohibited for its own sake, but allowed occasionally as an additional tool in the repertoire of the teacher and the learners as conditions warrant.

Note: Academic references for this article are available on request.

Prof. Larry M. Lynch has taught EFL, published ELT articles as an expert author, presented at numerous TESOL conferences and trained teachers in the USA, Colombia, Mexico, Ecuador, Panama and Spain. His work has appeared in Transitions Abroad, South American Explorer, Escape from America, Mexico News and Brazil magazines. At present he teaches at the Universidad Santiago de Cali in Cali, Colombia. To get original, exclusive articles and content for your newsletter, blog or website or information on TEFL presentations, specialized teacher training programs or conference speaking engagements contact him at:

Sunday, October 30, 2005

Six Quick Tricks for Learning a Language

Six Quick Tricks for Learning a Language

By Larry M. Lynch

Do you think that you can’t learn a new language? Think again. Our brains maintain the capacity to soak up new knowledge of all types far into our advanced years. No matter what your background or past learning experience, you CAN learn to speak another language using these six quick techniques.

There are a multitude of reasons for wanting to speak the lingua franca of another people; travel, business, education, personal pleasure, even family or friends. Indeed it’s no small feat to habla espaƱol, parlez francaise, or sprechenze Deutcsh, but the prestige, financial gains, personal satisfaction and envy that can accompany this easily nurtured skill can be most rewarding.

But, “Can I really develop good communicative skills in a new tongue?” you may well ask. Yes, you can if you’ll use these 10 quick tricks for heightening your language – learning experience and incorporating your new language into your everyday life.

1. Take a short course: A number of language courses are immediately available in most areas at a local community college or university. Courses in the continuing education department tend to be more consumer-oriented, less academic and more focused on the prospective needs of students like you. The internet likewise abounds with foreign language course offerings. You can learn Swedish, Norwegian, Danish or Finnish via multimedia at . The Definitive Worldwide Guide to Learning the Thai Language and Studying Thai Culture is online at: if you’re up for the exotic.

2. Mimicking: “Mom, he’s mocking me!” Have you ever heard this complaint when one sibling repeated everything the other said? One imitating word – for – word the speech, sounds even actions of the other? It’s called mimicking and it’s so effective you’ll be using this technique to get talking in record time yourself. The procedure is simple, you repeat exactly, word-for-word, everything your model says. That model can be a newscaster, character on a soap opera, documentary narrator or the voice coming from your tape player or radio. Don’t worry if it isn’t perfect. Just start by trying to get your tongue around the words. You’ll acquire speed and ease with practice. You may feel silly at first, but persevere. You’ll get there sooner than you think.

3. Reading Aloud: One of the most effective language-learning tricks is to use the counsel found in The Bible itself at Joshua 1: 8, “…and you must in an undertone read in it day and night, …” and again at Psalms 1:2 stating, “… And in his law he reads in an undertone day and night.” Read passages in the target language aloud to yourself. This powerful technique not only develops speaking and pronunciation skills, but contributes to listening comprehension, vocabulary and grammar too.
Almost any reading material in your target language will do as long as it’s interesting and fairly short. You wouldn’t start an English language learner off by reading “War and Peace” now would you?

4. Watch TV: If you have cable, is there a station broadcast in the language you’re interested in? Many metro areas carry programming in Spanish, French, German, Italian, and Portuguese. Even Chinese and Hindi are available in some regions. Check with your cable supplier or programming guides to see what’s listed. Programs to watch are the news, soap operas and documentaries. Have a VCR? Tape a couple of programs and play them over and over to accustom yourself to the flow of the language. Many VCR models have slow-motion and stop-action features allowing you to slow down the program to aid your understanding.

5. Listen to Music: In Japan, English students karaoke the Beatles. In Latin America, students mimic Bruce Springsteen. In Africa, the Backstreet Boys rule the airwaves. Lip-syncing popular songs is all the rage for English language learners, so why don’t you turn the tables and use it to your advantage. Check at music shops and bookstores for song CDs and tapes. Ask around for recommendations on where recordings in your target language might be available. Ethnic restaurants and shops are another good source for music or referrals. Lyrics to literally thousands of songs are available online. Songs are frequently available online in many major languages. Check the local library. The internet will yield hordes of song titles and stations worldwide in dozens of languages. A good online source for starters is which has live global feeds 24 hours a day in multiple languages.

6. Read: Stop at the library for a grammar book and some reading material. The grammar book will be an infrequent guide through those rough spots when the target language grammar differs substantially from English. But don’t overburden yourself with grammar and rules. A copious variety of entertaining magazines exists in most major languages and unless you’re learning Cochimi or Kukapa, you should be able to find something. A newspaper, general interest magazine, the bible, brochures, even comics can help you along. Short articles are best at first. Although you can wade through one or more of those in a matter of minutes, your personal satisfaction at doing so will be boundless. Try for hard-to-find titles.

You can’t pick your family; but you can pick your friends and you can pick conversations with native speakers of your target language. In the supermarket, in the mall, in the park, a restaurant or a convenience store – almost anywhere you happen to meet or run into a native speaker of your new lingua franca, don’t just stay there mum – say something. People are generally flattered that you’re trying to meet them on their own terms or in their own language and are usually more than happy to chat. Surely, you can say “Buenos Tardes” to someone passing down the aisle in the supermarket. It’s also great practice for breaking the ice when you finally light out for foreign soil.

These quick tricks in conjunction with a short language course will make your language-learning efforts less painless, more interesting, more pleasurable and much easier. Try to do something each and every day. Just think how green with envy your friends are all going to be - and start packing your bags.

Prof. Larry M. Lynch is also writer and photographer specializing in business, travel, food and education-related writing in South America. His work has appeared in Transitions Abroad, South American Explorer, Escape From America, Mexico News and Brazil magazines in print and online. He travels researching articles throughout Latin America and teaches English at a university in Cali, Colombia. To get original, exclusive articles and content for your newsletter, blog or website, contact him at: